battle of stalingrad summary

battle of stalingrad summary

Hitler was confident that he could break the Red Army despite the heavy German losses west of Moscow in winter 1941-42, because Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte) had been unable to engage 65% of its infantry, which had meanwhile been rested and re-equipped. Meanwhile, the Hungarian 2nd Army and the German 4th Panzer Army had launched an assault on Voronezh, capturing the city on 5 July. The Battle of Stalingrad was fought from July 17, 1942 to February 2, 1943, during World War II (1939-1945). The battle of Stalingrad began in autumn of 1942 and lasted until spring of 1943. Exceptionally intense shelling and bombing paved the way for the first German assault groups. The Soviet front's composition and names changed several times in the battle. "[105] Paulus notified Hitler that his men would likely collapse before the day was out. David Glantz indicated[42] that four hard-fought battles – collectively known as the Kotluban Operations – north of Stalingrad, where the Soviets made their greatest stand, decided Germany's fate before the Nazis ever set foot in the city itself, and were a turning point in the war. British war correspondent Alexander Werth described the following scene in his Russia at War book, based on a first-hand account of his visit to Stalingrad on 3–5 February 1943, We [...] went into the yard of the large burnt out building of the Red Army House; and here one realised particularly clearly what the last days of Stalingrad had been to so many of the Germans. The Germans were now not only starving, but running out of ammunition. Russia had more than a million soldiers killed and hurt. Several attempts to re-establish a defensive line failed when German units outflanked them. We start 1943 under conditions I would never have dared to hope. Of the 210,000 Germans, 10,000 remained to fight on, 105,000 surrendered, 35,000 left by air and the remaining 60,000 died. Hitler believed that Paulus would either fight to the last man or commit suicide. "We haven't had time to deal with them yet," one of the Russians said. On 19 November 1942, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus. The implications were obvious; no German commander of that rank had been captured alive. In November of that year, three Soviet armies counter-attacked from outside the city. Stalin was feted as the hero of the hour and made a Marshal of the Soviet Union. The Red Army gradually adopted a strategy to hold for as long as possible all the ground in the city. However, during the war, Hitler found Russia a necessity to enhance his world, In Anthony’s Beevor’s book “The Fall of Berlin 1945”, his forward opens with a statement from Albert Speer, the Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany. Supplying the 270,000 men trapped in the "cauldron" required 700 tons of supplies a day. This Army Group was created on 21 November 1942 from parts of Army Group B in order for it to hold the line between. The difference is comparing the city against the region. "[33]:193, On 26 January 1943, the German forces inside Stalingrad were split into two pockets north and south of Mamayev-Kurgan. And, at the far end of the yard, besides the other cesspool, behind a low stone wall, the yellow corpses of skinny Germans were piled up – men who had died in that basement—about a dozen wax-like dummies. By the end of August, Army Group South (B) had finally reached the Volga, north of Stalingrad. [33]:203, On 30 January 1943, the 10th anniversary of Hitler's coming to power, Goebbels read out a proclamation that included the sentence: "The heroic struggle of our soldiers on the Volga should be a warning for everybody to do the utmost for the struggle for Germany's freedom and the future of our people, and thus in a wider sense for the maintenance of our entire continent. The Hungarian 2nd Army was given the task of defending a 200 km (120 mi) section of the front north of Stalingrad between the Italian Army and Voronezh. By 27 Sept. the Germans occupied the southern portion of the city, but the Soviets held the centre and northern part. While a motorised breakout might have been possible in the first few weeks, the 6th Army now had insufficient fuel and the German soldiers would have faced great difficulty breaking through the Soviet lines on foot in harsh winter conditions. "Stalingrad" follows the progress of a German Platoon through the brutal fighting of the Battle of Stalingrad. Yes, we felt better. [40]:280 General Walther von Seydlitz-Kurzbach offered to raise an anti-Hitler army from the Stalingrad survivors, but the Soviets did not accept. [33]:107, 113, The Red Army units immediately formed two defensive fronts: a circumvallation facing inward and a contravallation facing outward. This is where the Red Army proved that it could not only contain the Wehrmacht, but also defeat the apparently invincible German war machine. It is not David versus Goliath, but Hercules versus Zeus, the manly conflict of two equally matched and equally remorseless adversaries. Barbarossa had cost the German army 1.1 million casualties. The Germans used aircraft, tanks and heavy artillery to clear the city with varying degrees of success. [136] Soviet propaganda spared no effort and wasted no time in capitalising on the triumph, impressing a global audience. In response, Hitler issued a tranche of field promotions to the Sixth Army's officers. CATASTROPHIC TERRORISM [40]:401 He remained in the Soviet Union until 1952, then moved to Dresden in East Germany, where he spent the remainder of his days defending his actions at Stalingrad and was quoted as saying that Communism was the best hope for postwar Europe. Even with the desperate situation of the Sixth Army, Army Group A continued their invasion of the Caucasus further south from 19 November until 19 December. Stalin's Order No. [30]:153 Transport aircraft also evacuated technical specialists and sick or wounded personnel from the besieged enclave. It was not until 1955 that the last of the 5,000–6,000 survivors were repatriated (to West Germany) after a plea to the Politburo by Konrad Adenauer. German commanders observed a clear hardening of Soviet resistance but managed to make their way through the 64th Army and across the Don on August 23. The man was probably already dying. In fact, the Red Army was able to launch a counteroffensive in Moscow on December 5/6, which caught the Germans off guard, rejecting them for more than 100 miles in some places before the line stabilized. "[104] On 24 January, in his radio report to Hitler, Paulus reported "18,000 wounded without the slightest aid of bandages and medicines. These bridgeheads in retrospect presented a serious threat to Army Group B. Битвы и сражения, изменившие ход войны. [citation needed] Some have presumed that they were motivated by a belief that fighting on was better than a slow death in Soviet captivity. [123] On 18 February, Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels gave the famous Sportpalast speech in Berlin, encouraging the Germans to accept a total war that would claim all resources and efforts from the entire population. Some 266 Junkers Ju 52s were destroyed; one-third of the fleet's strength on the Eastern Front. Leading up to the Battle of Stalingrad, the German Wehrmacht had already suffered multiple setbacks in Russia. | They are enjoying themselves until they hear music and realize they are late for their formations, and they rush to join their ranks. Field Marshal Erich von Manstein advised Hitler not to order the 6th Army to break out, stating that he could break through the Soviet lines and relieve the besieged 6th Army. Then we came into the yard. All Rights Reserved. Lisa M. Fine, The Story of Reo Joe: Work, Kin, and Community [72], After 27 September, much of the fighting in the city shifted north to the industrial district. At the end of October, they occupied 90% of the city and had all the areas controlled by the Soviets under fire. On July 12, he established the Stalingrad front, consisting of 62nd, 63rd, and 64th armies. German casualties at Stalingrad were about 200,000 men, and 110,000 6th Army troops were held captive by the Soviets. Out of the nearly 91,000 German prisoners captured in Stalingrad, only about 5,000 returned. Winter Storm was the last hope of the 6th Army. However, the battle was seen as a turning point in the war in Europe. The plan was similar to the one Zhukov had used to achieve victory at Khalkhin Gol three years before, where he had sprung a double envelopment and destroyed the 23rd Division of the Japanese army.[85]. But after two months, they had used up all of their ammunition and food and were forced to surrender. To enjoy the CBBC Newsround website at its best you will need to have JavaScript turned on. "[33]:201, 203 On 28 January, the cauldron was split into three parts. Elsewhere, the war had been progressing well: the U-boat offensive in the Atlantic had been very successful and Erwin Rommel had just captured Tobruk. The surrounded Axis personnel comprised 265,000 Germans, Romanians, Italians,[86][page needed] and the Croatians. On 5 September, the Soviet 24th and 66th Armies organized a massive attack against XIV Panzer Corps. The modern Russia is a thriving country with great technological advancements in nuclear physics , the, E SSAYS ON Hiroshima, Japan, First Atomic Bomb(Opens in a new browser tab), Why Did Japan Surrender in WW2 | Summary History, Facts, & Causes(Opens in a new browser tab), Battle of Stalingrad Short Summary | Deaths, & Facts. Thus, the bulk of Paulus’ army only reached the outskirts of downtown Stalingrad in early September. A low-level Soviet envoy party (comprising Major Aleksandr Smyslov, Captain Nikolay Dyatlenko and a trumpeter) carried generous surrender terms to Paulus: if he surrendered within 24 hours, he would receive a guarantee of safety for all prisoners, medical care for the sick and wounded, prisoners being allowed to keep their personal belongings, "normal" food rations, and repatriation to any country they wished after the war. The Germans advanced further and faster than any other modern army, capturing some three million prisoners. When a position was lost, an immediate attempt was usually made to re-take it with fresh forces.

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